If you’re one of those unlucky people who suffer from one of these conditions, you may be tempted to spend money on an air purifier in the search for relief. Our US neighbours spend over $250 million annually on air treatment units for their homes, and we’re not far behind.
Before you open your wallet, you need to arm yourself with knowledge so you spend your money wisely. But part of the problem is knowing what to buy – an air cleaner, an air purifier, or an air filter?
Definitions and Technologies
At the end of the day most companies use these terms interchangeably, especially “air cleaner” and “air purifier”. In fact, if you look up the definitions online you’ll pretty much see the same basic thing for each one: “a device used for trapping or removing particles or contaminants from the air”.
What will really help you is to talk about the types of technologies that can be used by themselves or in combination with each other.
An air filter is a mesh of some sort that can be used to screen out particles. The simplest 1” filters for your furnace prevent hair and larger dust particles from getting into your furnace and reducing its efficiency. There’s nothing wrong with these if you don’t suffer from any allergic symptoms.
HEPA Air Filters
HEPA stands for High Efficiency Particulate Air, and is a specific filter standard that should trap 99.97% of particles 0.03 microns or larger. This type of filter is much finer, and will trap smaller particles like pollen spores and some bacteria, but will not trap gasses.
Most filters will trap solid particles of a certain size, but what if the problem is a gas? For that you need an adsorption (not absorption) product that causes the gas molecule to be trapped on the surface of a material like charcoal. The gas molecules are chemically and/or electrostatically drawn to the surface of the charcoal, where it becomes “stuck”.
Ultra Violet (UV) Sterilization
A UV sterilizer uses the same UVA and UVB rays emitted by our sun to kill microorganisms like moulds, bacteria and even some viruses.
Ionic or Electrostatic
These technologies use a charge to cause airborne particles to be drawn to metal plates. The advantage of these is that they can allow better overall airflow. These are best combined with a regular air filter to ensure everything gets trapped – many units use both these technologies.
Ozone is made of three oxygen molecules bonded together, and it’s a powerful deodorizer. Unfortunately it’s also a toxic gas in large doses. We don’t recommend you buy ozone generators for your home. Most ionic systems generate a tiny bit of ozone, so ensure you ask how much is created and don’t buy anything that creates more than 50-60 parts per billion, which is about the levels of ozone found outdoors.
This isn’t a full list of all the technologies available, but it is a good overview of the ones you’re likely to run into the most.
Which Technologies Actually Work?
The answer will depend on the problem you’re facing, as not all products work on all issues. If you’re facing more than one problem, buy a unit that contains all the technologies you need.
- Problem: pollen allergies / hay fever. Get a HEPA filter.
- Problem: dust allergies. A HEPA filter is best.
- Problem: tobacco smoke or VOCs (volatile organic compounds). Activated carbon filter.
- Problem: general constant colds and sore throats that never go away. If your doctor says they can’t find a serious health issue, a HEPA filter (or better) should help you find relief. You should also ensure your home has a humidifier to combat dry winter air.
- Problem: mould in your home. You should get a UV sterilizer inside your ductwork and you may need a dehumidifier as well. In summer, your air conditioner should provide enough dehumidification but if you don’t run it often enough a dehumidifier may be the answer. You may also need a good shower fan if the problem is mostly in the bathroom. For serious mould infestations you may need to consult a professional mould removal company.
- Problem: dust mite allergy. While a HEPA filter will help with airborne dust mite feces (yuck!) you should also get a dust-mite proof cover for your bed and pillow. Dust mites live in any kind of cloth or upholstered surface, so consider replacing carpeting with wood or tile floors and replace drapes with blinds.
Unfortunately, there is no technology that will allow you to get away without regular vacuuming of your home. If you have allergies, try a vacuum cleaner with a HEPA filter.
Treat Your Whole Home
Whatever solution you need, it’s important to treat your whole home at the same time for best results. While it’s tempting to sleep with a cheap portable unit by your bedside, what happens when you walk down the stairs?
Don’t forget that your home’s air and particles in it circulates. For example, a pollen spore that comes in with you through your front door will tend to drift towards the ground or nearby furniture. As you walk around, you stir up the dust layer, which can trigger an attack.
Why not use your home’s air circulation system that’s already moving air around to treat your air? You’ll get cleaner air, better sleep, and fewer allergy or asthma attacks.